The Moon is the Earth's only natural satellite. Natural satellites that orbit other planets are also often called moons, but Earth's moon specifically is referred to as the Moon. The Moon is about one-quarter the diameter of the Earth itself. The surface of the Moon is barren and rocky, it has no atmosphere and can not support life. The Moon has a place of significance in all of human culture and history, and is the second-most prominent celestial body featured in most Gundam series, after the Earth itself.
The Moon orbits around Earth at an average distance of about 240,000 miles (386,000 kilometers), completing an orbit in a little over 27 days. At night the Moon reflects sunlight back to Earth and appears illuminated. As the Moon orbits Earth, it will spend some time behind the Earth and portions of it will no longer be illuminated by sunlight. When this is viewed from Earth, the Moon will appear to go through "phases" as it passes through the Earth's shadow. When the Moon is totally obscured it is referred to as a 'New Moon,' and when the Moon is totally illuminated it is called a 'Full Moon.' Because the Moon is tidally locked to the Earth it no longer rotates, so only one side of the Moon ever faces the planet. The opposite, far side that never faces the Earth is often called the "dark side" of the Moon.
The Moon is the location of multiple Earth Federation Forces lunar cities, bases and/or factories used in the wars raging from the latter-quarter of the 1st U.C. century onward. Each city or base constructed on the Moon served as either a military factory or stronghold for a political faction in a war. The largest of these cities is Von Braun, where Anaheim Electronics is headquartered. The second largest city, Granada, is located on the dark side of the Moon facing Side 3.
As it was deemed unsuitable for permanent human habitation, the Moon became a tourist attraction. Prior to the Eve Wars, however, OZ constructed a Lunar Base that doubled as Mobile Doll manufacturing plant, which served to be critical in the latter-end of the Eve Wars. After the war, the Lunar Base became a base of operations for the Gundam pilots.
One Lunar Base is located on the Moon, where the D.O.M.E. remains are kept, and serves as part of the Satellite System by sending the microwave beam to mobile suits equipped with the system. In AW 0015, however, the base is destroyed.
The Moon is the home of a futuristic utopian society of people, called the Moonrace, who have changed the barren landscape of the Moon into a habitable paradise.
Like in the Universal Century timeline, the Moon houses many military bases used during the Alliance-PLANT Wars: only one lunar civilian city - Copernicus City - was ever built on the Moon.
The Moon serves as the secret location of Veda, known as the Moon Terminal, along with the pod of Aeolia Schenberg. It was transferred to the mothership Celestial Being by Ribbons Almark after the terminal was discovered by both him and Alejandro Corner. Celestial Being holds its orbital position on the dark side of the Moon at Lagrange 2.