Romefeller says it has been controlling history for centuries. Could that be quite a few centuries? Even if Gundam was taking place in 2400 AD, it would still be only 6 centuries back to 1800.
Romefeller = Rokefeller. It is a common stand in for Rothchilds/ Illuminati et al.
In this case, Rokefeller/ Rothschilds became Aristocrats and divided a globalized world into their own kingdoms. It is important to note that when the Earth did unite, the Romefellers were 100% onboard and immediately started subverting and infiltrating.
What is unique to Gundam Wing is that the organization went from shadowy organization to direct control, with the formation of Oz, and the later Oz take over of Earth. In essence, this was only Romefeller's play to solidify its hold it already had on the earth, in order to force military action in order to control the Colonies.
When Relena Peacecraft became Queen of Earth, and the highest ranking Romefeller/Oz leaders died, Romefeller Organization didn't die out ... merely its public presence was disposed of. It was forced to retreat back into the Shadows. That is how an organization that "controls history for centuries" operates. Romefeller is a Japanese creation in which they are placing the "Illuminati" as an official part of their Canon. Romefeller (in wing) is just the public face for the Aristocracy ... the Financial aristocracy already existed, (rothschild, rokefeller, red shield bank), but they simply bought the legal control as well, by becoming visible aristicrats (Dukes, et al) and creating their own military.
Basically they went from the spreadsheets into the 'real world' b/c Japan creators wanted a good villian ;)
Yeha. "Illuminati" is such a meme'd conspiracy theory ;) ... the first Illuminati was a secret gathering for philosophers and scientists to talk about interesting ideas outside of the Church's censorship (and accusations of witchcraft, heresy, et al)
Later it became a reference point for Financial conspiracies (banking cartels)
Rothschilds are the most wealthy family in the world by a wide margin, but they hide their wealth quite well. Its actually quite cool (look for some Alux videos about billionaires).