Earth is the original home world of the human race before the mass migration to space. Though the majority of humanities population lives in space there are still many who live on Earth. It is a unified world as well as the capital of the Earth Federation.
In the Future Century the elites of humanity (the wealthy, celebrities, scientists, politicians, and the like) have left Earth to live in the space colonies. This led to a war amongst what was left of the nations which ended through the intervention of the colonies and the establishment of the Gundam Fight. The war and Gundam Fights which are held every four years has left the Earth ravaged.
In the After Colony timeline, by 195 AC every nation on Earth is a member of the United Earth Sphere Alliance which also has full control over the oppressed colonies.
In the After War timeline a colony drop at the end of the 7th Space War has killed 99 percent of the human population as well as having destroyed much of the Earth's environment.
In the Correct Century timeline all technology on Earth was destroyed, the culmination of mankind's Black History. As a result, the technological level on Earth in this timeline is comparable to that of Earth in the early 1900s.
In stark contrast to the backwoods nature of Earthlings is the almost Utopia society of the Moon Race, a futuristic society which has changed the barren landscape of the moon into a paradise. The Moon Race is the only group which has advanced to the point of having their own Mobile Suits; the people of Earth only find Mobile Suits as relics of the far-flung past in archaeological digs, such as the MS-06 Zaku II (referred to as MS-06 Borjarnon by the Earth militia) and the titular machine of Turn A Gundam, referred to by the characters as the White Doll.
Though the moon is a paradise there are those who dissatisfied with how unchanging it is and wish to colonize Earth, sparking a war between the Moon race and Earth.
Earth is the home world of the Naturals. It is divided into 10 nations: Atlantic Federation, Eurasian Federation, Republic of East Asia, Equatorial Union, Oceania Union, African Community, South Africa Union, United States of South America, Orb Union and Kingdom of Scandinavia.
The Anno Domini timeline uses the current calendar set three hundred years into the future. Earth is much the same except that fossil fuels are virtually depleted, the majority of the world's countries are organized into three power blocks centered around three orbital elevators which supply the world with a nearly infinite supply of solar energy.
In the Advanced Generation timeline, the world and its nations are governed by the Earth Federation since before the implementation of the AG Calendar.
After the Calamity War 300 years earlier, the Earth has been divided into four main economic blocs, with military and police powers consolidated by Gjallarhorn, the organization that ended the War.