Dakar has been the home of the Earth Federation assembly since U.C. 0001.
It was there that the Earth Federation during the time of the Gryps Conflict give the Titans the full control over E.F.G.F. Following the attack on Kilimanjaro, AEUG leader Quattro Bajeena addressed the Assembly and denounced the Titans to the world in U.C. 0087.
First Neo Zeon War
Shortly after the end of the Gryps Conflict, the city came under the occupation by Axis Zeon in U.C. 0088 during the First Neo Zeon War, but with the combine force of AEUG and Karaba and the successful retake the assembly forces the Neo Zeon into retreat. During this time, Federation leadership was transferred to Dublin, Ireland.
Second Neo Zeon War
In U.C. 0092, the Federation's administrative facilities are moved to Lahsa, Tibet, but it was destroyed by Char's Neo Zeon during the Second Neo Zeon War when he dropped Fifth Luna which crashed onto the city.
Third Neo Zeon War
Eventually Federation's administrative facilities and its leadership returned to Dakar to resume as the political capital of the Earth Federation. In U.C. 0096, the city was attacked by the Zeon Remnants to distract the Earth Federation Forces from noticing the Garencieres' descent to Earth. During the attack, the EFF guarding the capital were able to destroy most of the Zeon attacking forces. Before most EFF forces including several buildings and the senate capital were wiped out themselves by the AMA-X7 Shamblo's Mega Particle cannon. The battle ended before the Londo Bell ship Ra Cailum could arrive, with the end result being a death toll upwards of 40,000 people including civilians and military personnel.
Late Universal Century
By the Late UC, the Assembly or parts of it move to space and on the moon. This is well received by the Spacenoids, finally giving them the power to administrate the government.